Abstracts vol. 117-1 2011

A NEW SPECIES OF CYRTOSPIRIFER (BRACHIOPODA) FROM THE MIDDLE DEVONIAN OF THE WESTERN SAHARA (NORTHWESTERN AFRICA)

MENA SCHEMM-GREGORY

A new species of Cyrtospirifer is described from the Middle to Upper Givetian of the Western Sahara (Northwest Africa). Cyrtospirifer tindoufensis new species differs in its smaller number and coarser medial and flank plications and equibiconvex shell profile from the other Givetian species of Cyrtospirifer that all occur in Europe and to which the new species probably gives rise. The new implications of the proposed phylogeny of the earliest cyrtospiriferids and their origin from the Western Sahara are discussed. The palaeogeographic distribution of the cyrtospiriferids during the Givetian and Frasnian is shown and its migration ways are described considering the global transgression and regression cycles.

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PROTOGNATHODUS (CONODONTA) AND ITS POTENTIAL AS A TOOL FOR DEFINING THE DEVONIAN/CARBONIFEROUS BOUNDARY

CARLO CORRADINI, SANDRA I. KAISER, MARIA CRISTINA PERRI
& CLAUDIA SPALLETTA

The current definition of the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary is the first occurrence of the conodont Siphonodella sulcata. Due to difficulties in identification of the early siphonodellids, such as S. praesulcata and S. sulcata, investigation of Protognathodus which enters in the latest Devonian and extends into the Mississippian, was undertaken to determine use as a better indicator of the base of the Carboniferous. During the D/C boundary interval, Protognathus is represented by four species: Pr. meischneri, Pr. collinsoni, Pr. kockeli and Pr. kuehni.Although Pr. kockeli can be abundant in boundary interval sections, none of the four Protognathodus species has a high potential as a tool for redefining the D/C boundary, based on regional variation in first occurrence data, restricted stratigraphic ranges and global distribution, poorly understood facies occurrences, as well as general rarity of the taxa.

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TWO SPECIES OF PROFUSULINELLA (P. ALJUTOVICA AND P. OVATA), EARLY MOSCOVIAN (PENNSYLVANIAN) FUSULINES FROM SOUTHERN TURKEY AND SUBDIVISION OF PRIMITIVE GROUPS OF THE FAMILY FUSULINIDAE

FUMIO KOBAYASHI

Early Moscovian (Pennsylvanian) fusulines, Profusulinella aljutovica and Profusulinella ovata, from the Hadim area, southern Turkey are described systematically. They are contained in the bedded limestone (algal fusuline grainstone) of the Yaricak Formation of the Aladag Unit in the Tauride Block. Morphologic analysis of these and similar species suggests: (1) Aljutovella should be synonymous with Profusulinella; (2) Ovatella, Depratina, Staffellaeformes, Aljutovella (Elongatella), Tikhonovichiella, Skelnevatella, and Priscoidella proposed in 1980’s and 1990’s are also synonymous with Profusulinella; and (3) the families Profusulinellidae and Aljutovellidae are not necessary and Profusulinella is included in the subfamily Fusulinellinae placed under the family Fusulinidae.

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DISCOVERY OF THE LOWER MURGABIAN (MIDDLE PERMIAN) BASED ON NEOSCHWAGERINIDS AND VERBEEKINIDS IN THE TAURIDES, SOUTHERN TURKEY

FUMIO KOBAYASHI & DEMIR ALTINER

Lower Murgabian (Roadian) beds have been discovered for the first time in a thick carbonate sequence ranging from Devonian to Triassic in the Hadim area, central Taurides, southern Turkey. The Roadian limestone consists of black algal fusuline packstone and black bioclastic packstone, and contains Presumatrina ciryi n. sp., an evolved form of the genus, Verbeekina erki n. sp., an earliest species of Verbeekina, Dunbarula protomathieui n. sp., an ancestral form of Dunbarula mathieui, and several smaller foraminifera.

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GUADALUPIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM WESTERN TAURUS, TURKEY

V. VERNA, L. ANGIOLINI, A. BAUD, S. CRASQUIN  & A. NICORA

 Here we describe 41 brachiopod species belonging to the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida, Spiriferinida, and Terebratulida coming from the Guadalupian lower-middle part of the Pamuçak Formation at Çürük Dað, Antalya (Western Taurus, Turkey). Associated conodonts are also reported and illustrated. The brachiopod taxa are either pedicle attached genera, with one genus also stabilized by penetration of its elongate umbo, or free living concavo-convex semi-infaunal genera; this indicates that the energy of the environment was never very high, as in settings just below the fair weather wave-base or in a back-reef, more protected inner platform. The brachiopods from the Pamuçak Formation are very similar to the Wordian fauna of southeastern Oman, and they are similar to the Guadalupian assemblages of Chios, North Iran, South Thailand, and Salt Range. In comparison they share only a few taxa with the Guadalupian faunas of Central Afghanistan and Karakorum. Therefore the biotic affinity of the Guadalupian brachiopods of the Pamuçak Formation is clearly peri-Gondwanan. The brachiopod record at Çürük Dað has implications for understanding the pattern of the end-Guadalupian (pre-Lopingian) biotic crisis. The pre-Lopingian crisis assemblages are quite diverse and nearly totally consist of Guadalupian genera and species except for a single Lopingian incomer. Their stratigraphic range terminates rather abruptly and the following 120 metres of shallow water limestones are barren of brachiopods, after which there is the first occurrence of Lopingian brachiopod taxa, which show a much lower biodiversity.  This pattern is different from that observed in South China and it shows that the end-Guadalupian crisis is not only characterized by taxonomic selectivity, but also by a strong local control on the extinction/recovery pattern of some groups.

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LERCARITUBUS PROBLEMATICUS FLÜGEL, SENOWBARI-DARYAN & DI STEFANO AND VANGIA TELLERI (FLÜGEL): TWO PROBLEMATIC ORGANISMS FROM THE PERMIAN JAMAL FORMATION OF SHOTORI MOUNTAINS, NORTHEAST IRAN

BABA SENOWBARI-DARYAN & KOOROSH RASHIDI

Lercaritubus problematicus Flügel, Senowbari-Daryan & Di Stefano and Vangia telleri (Flügel) and enigmatic calcareous fossils, known from the Sicily, Guadalupe Mountains, USA and Oman is described from the Permian Jamal Formation of Shotori Mountains, northeast Iran. The new genus name Vangia is introduced for Uvanella? telleri Flügel. The systematic position of Vangia telleri (Flügel) nov. comb. as possibly cyanobaterium and its relationships with Bacinella irregularis Radoicic, an abundant enigmatic fossil in Jurassic-Cretaceous shallow water deposits, is discussed.

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CONODONT BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY AT THE LUKAC SECTION IN WESTERN SLOVENIA

TEA KOLAR-JURKOVSEK, BOGDAN JURKOVSEK & DUNJA ALJINOVIC

Detailed conodont biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the Late Permian and Early Triassic beds were studied at the LukaC section in western Slovenia. The analyzed section is composed of the Bellerophon Formation ("evaporite-dolomite member") and the newly introduced Lukaè Formation ("transitional beds", "streaky limestone member" and "carbonate-clastic beds member"). The Permian-Triassic boundary interval is represented by "transitional beds" of carbonate facies deposited in shallow restricted marine conditions. The presence of H. parvus in sample L1 in the "transitional beds" marks the systemic boundary between Permian and Triassic. The studied interval is characterized by a diverse microfauna that contain conodonts, foraminifers, ostracods and gastropods. Six conodont zones have been recognized, in ascending order, the latest Changhsingian (uppermost Permian) praeparvus Zone, and the Griesbachian (lowermost Triassic) parvus, lobata, staeschei-isarcica, postparvus and anceps zones. This faunal succession represents the first known and the most complete conodont biozonation across the Permian-Triassic interval from the entire Dinaric region. The recognized conodont biozones can be correlated with the biozonation of the Southern Alps and of the GSSP Meishan D section.

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CONODONT DATING OF THE LOWER TRIASSIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN THE EXTERNAL DINARIDES (CROATIA AND BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA)

DUNJA ALJINOVIC, TEA KOLAR-JURKOVSEK, BOGDAN JURKOVSEK
& HAZIM HRVATOVIC

Two Lower Triassic sedimentary successions have been dated by means of conodonts in the External Dinarides: Plavno section near Knin, Croatia and Bosansko Grahovo section in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Deposition in both sections shows similar characteristics, differentiated in three continuously deposited facies. The Siliciclastic facies was previously considered Seis beds and assigned to the lower Lower Triassic, the Mudstone facies, and the Siltstone-mudstone facies (occurring in the upper part of the succession) were formerly considered as Campil beds of the upper Lower Triassic. Vertical succession of Siliciclastic, Mudstone, and Siltstone-mudstone facies of both investigated sequences was interpreted as deepening of the environment envisaged as a transgressive trend in a shallow shelf environment. Facies successions at Plavno (690 m thick) and Bosansko Grahovo (229 m thick) differentiate for the presence of Dolostone facies in the lowest part of the Plavno succession. Conodont fauna of Dolostone facies at Plavno section is represented by isarcicellids, Isarcicella staeschei and I. isarcica (sample 3) that marks the Griesbachian isarcica Zone. The Siliciclastic facies of Plavno and Bosansko Grahovo sections is characterized by shallow-water euryhaline taxa attributed to the Smithian, part of the late Dinerian-Smithian obliqua Zone. This fauna is prevailed by Hadrodontina anceps and Pachycladina obliqua with co-occurrence of Smithian Parachirognathus ethingtoni and very rare presence of Foliella sp. or ?Furnishius sp. Discerned conodont taxa enable us to establish conodont zonation which gives new insight to the range of the so-called Siusi and Campil beds.

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NEW PTEROSAUR SPECIMENS FROM THE KEM KEM BEDS
(UPPER CRETACEOUS, CENOMANIAN) OF MOROCCO

TAISSA RODRIGUES, ALEXANDER W. A. KELLNER, BRYN J. MADER
& DALE A. RUSSELL

Although pterosaurs from Africa are still rare, in recent years several specimens have been described from the Kem Kem beds (Upper Cretaceous, Cenomanian) of Morocco. Here we describe four additional specimens from this informal lithostratigraphic unit: a jaw fragment, two mid-cervical vertebrae, and a humerus. All these specimens show three-dimensional preservation, differing much from the flat condition found in most pterosaur material. The vertebrae are particularly well preserved, and allow accurate observations on the pneumatization of the neural arch. Based on comparable material, we show that at least two edentulous pterosaur species were present in this informal lithostratigraphic unit, thus adding to the growing evidence of considerable pterosaur diversity in northwestern Africa during the "middle" Cretaceous. So far, the Kem Kem beds have the most diverse pterosaur fauna in this continent, with the presence of anhanguerids, azhdarchids, pteranodontids, and tapejarids.

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MORPHOLOGIC VARIATIONS OF THE TRACE FOSSIL RUTICHNUS IN CM-THICK TURBIDITES FROM THE VERGHERETO FORMATION (NORTHERN APENNINES, ITALY)

PAOLO MONACO

The analysis of 56 specimens of the branched, walled post-depositional trace fossil Rutichnus, sampled from 31 thin-bedded, overbank turbidites from the Verghereto Formation, Romagna Apennines, indicates high morphologic variability of this ichnotaxon in hypichnial preservation. The variability concerns the arrangement of outer and inner walls, number and shape of annulations, distribution of pustules, the (false) branching arrangement and the general external shape. Highest variability has been observed mainly in the Rutichnus rutis ichnospecies, clearly less in the R. irregularis ichnospecies that is rare. The Dino-Lite microscope camera analysis of oriented thin sections indicates that endichnial preservation exhibits many structures due to burrowing in soft substrate, destroying  laminae of sand. Consequently Rutichnus probably was produced by a worm or arthropod, inducing strong deformation in turbidite sand during the feeding activity on phytodetritus and organic matter transported by the turbidity flow.

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STEPHANORHINUS ETRUSCUS (FALCONER, 1868) FROM PIRRO NORD (APRICENA, FOGGIA, SOUTHERN ITALY) WITH NOTES ON THE OTHER LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE
RHINOCEROS REMAINS OF ITALY

LUCA PANDOLFI & CARMELO PETRONIO

During the late Early Pleistocene (latest Villafranchian-earliest Galerian), a marked faunal turnover occurred in Italy, with a progressive disappearance of Villafranchian species and the gradual arrival of new species that later characterized the Middle Pleistocene. Two rhinoceros species are reported during this time: Stephanorhinus etruscus and S. hundsheimensis. The morphological and morphometrical analysis of the rhinoceros remains unearthed in the quarries of Pirro Nord (Pirro Faunal Unit, about 1.3-1.6 My) show a great affinity with S. etruscus, in particular with its second evolutionary stage. This stage is characterized by a general variation in body size and proportions. Other rhinoceros remains, found in Italian sites chronologically correlated with Pirro Faunal Unit (FU), are also ascribed to the second evolutionary stage of S. etruscus. In addition, in Italy, the presence of S. hundsheimensis is unknown before the Colle Curti FU (about 1 My). This is likely related to the scarcity of sites chronologically referable to the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition or to a delay in the dispersal event of this species in Italy. Furthermore, the occurrence of S. hundsheimensis in Europe and in Italy may be related to the climatic deterioration of the latest Early Pleistocene, as may be the variation in proportions and size of S. etruscus.

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REGENERATION AND ABNORMALITY IN BENTHIC FORAMINIFER ROSALINA LEEI: IMPLICATIONS IN RECONSTRUCTING PAST SALINITY CHANGES

K. R.SUJATA, RAJIV NIGAM, RAJEEV SARASWAT & V. N. LINSHY

A laboratory culture experiment has been conducted to assess the response of marginal marine benthic foraminifer Rosalina leei to salinity and associated pH changes. Live specimens of Rosalina leei were subjected to a range (10-35 psu) of salinity. It was observed that hyposaline condition leads to dissolution of the calcareous tests. However, if the hyposaline condition persists only for a short period, then even after considerable dissolution, specimens were able to regenerate the dissolved part of the test. Additionally, in all the specimens subjected to lower than normal salinity, the regenerated chambers were abnormal. The abnormalities included smaller or larger chambers and addition of new chambers in planes different than the normal plane of the tests. The regenerated specimens, however, attained a final size almost equal to that of control specimens that were not subjected to hyposaline conditions. The differential response of R. leei was attributed to decreased seawater pH under hyposaline condition. The findings can help understand the increased abundance of abnormal specimens under ecologically stressed environments.

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